A short time after the first colonists came to the territory, which we

now call Massachusetts, the General Court of Massachusetts made the first

contribution for Harvard College. It was in 1636. This school later became

the famous Harvard University. It is the oldest university in the United

States. It was named in honor of John Harvard, who died in 1638. This man

left his library and half of his property to the university. People knew

that the future of the new country depended on education. And after the

establishment of Harvard they began to establish other schools. In 1776 the

Americans declared their independence. By this time nine other institutions

were opened. Their present names and the dates of their opening are:

College of Willian and Mary (1693).

Yale University (1701).

Princeton University (1746).

Washington and Lee University (1749).

Columbia University (1754).

University of Pensilvania (1755).

Brown University (1764).

Rutgers College (1766).

Dartmouth College (1770).

Some of the money for the educational institutions came from the

government, but most of it came from people who felt that by giving their

money they were investing in the new country. People believed that the new

country needed colleges. They voted for their state governments to organize

colleges, which would be supported by taxes. These are called state

universities and they arc playing leading roles in the world of education

in America. By 1894 all states had such universities. The University of

Michigan, which first opened as a school in Detroit in 1817, became a state

university in 1837 when Michigan became a state.

In the early 1800s most people thought that only men should affend

college. But other people fell certain that women too must be educated.

Some of them thought that the best would be to have co-educated colleges.

Others thought that there must be separate colleges for men and women;

Oberlin College, which was founded it 1833 was the first co-educational

school. Mount Holyoke was founded in 1837. It was the first school for

women. Other schools for women are: Vassar (1821), Wells (1868), Wellesley

(1871). In 1870 Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, California began to admit

women to state universities. Now all public universities admit women. Even

many private men's colleges are beginning to admit women. So the ideas

about American education are changing.

Princeton University

Princeton University is a vibrant community of scholarship and learning

that stands in the nation's service and in the service of all nations.

Chartered in 1746, and known as the College of New Jersey until 1896, it

was British North America's fourth college. Fully coeducational since 1969,

Princeton in the 2002-2003 academic year enrolled 6,632 students -- 4,635

undergraduates and 1,997 graduate students -- with a ratio of full-time

students to faculty members of 5.6 to 1. The University, with more than

12,000 employees, is Mercer County's largest private employer and plays a

major role in the educational, cultural and economic life of the region.

The College of William and Mary.

The College of William and Mary, one of the nation's premier state-

assisted liberal arts universities, believes that excellence in teaching is

the key to unlocking intellectual and personal possibilities for students.

Dedicated to this philosophy and committed to limited enrollment, the

College provides high-quality undergraduate, graduate and professional

education that prepares students to make significant contributions to the

Commonwealth of Virginia and the nation. In recognition, the media have

included William and Mary among the nation's prestigious "Public Ivys," and

ranked it first among state institutions in terms of commitment to



Chartered on February 8, 1693, by King William III and Queen Mary II as the

second college in the American colonies. Severed formal ties with Britain

in 1776. Became state-supported in 1906 and coeducational in 1918. Achieved

modern university status in 1967. Phi Beta Kappa, the nation's premier

academic honor society, and the honor code system of conduct were founded

at William and Mary.


Located in historic Williamsburg, Va., approximately 150 miles south of

Washington, D.C., midway between Richmond and Norfolk, Va.


Approximately 1,200 acres including picturesque Lake Matoaka and the

College Woods. Adjacent to Colonial Williamsburg, the Ancient Campus

section is restored to 18th-century appearance.

Instructional Faculty

569 in arts and sciences, marine science, education, business

administration and law; 93 percent of the faculty teaching undergraduate

courses have attained terminal degrees.


7,500 of whom approximately 5,500 are undergraduates.

Student-Faculty Ratio

Approximately 12 to 1.

Student Statistics

Students from 50 states and 75 foreign countries; 79 percent of current

freshmen graduated in top tenth of their class with the middle 50 percent

having total SAT scores ranging from 1240-1400; 28 percent of all students

received need-based financial aid totaling $14 million in 2000-2001.

Tuition and Fees For the 2002-2003 session, total annual cost of tuition,

fees, room and board for in-state undergraduate students is$10,626; for out-

of-state undergraduate students, $24,826. In-state students in the School

of Law pay $11,100 and out-of-state students pay $21,290. In-state students

in the Master's of Business Administration program pay $9,978 and out-of-

state students pay $21,258. In-state graduate students in the Schools of

Marine Science, Education, and Arts and Sciences pay $6,138 and out-of-

state students pay $17,972.

Student Activities Over 250 student-interest groups plus 16 national social

fraternities and 12 sororities; William and Mary Theatre, Concert and

Sunday Series; Choir; Band; Speakers Forum; live entertainment in 10,000-

seat W&M Hall. There are a total of 23 men's and women's intercollegiate

athletic teams.

Degrees A.B., B.S., B.B.A., M.A., M.S., M.B.A., M.A.C., M.Ed., M.A.Ed.,

Ph.D., J.D., Ed.D., Psy.D., LL.M., M.P.P.

Programs of Study American Studies+#, Anthropology+#, Applied Science+#,

Art/Art History, Biochemistry (minor only), Biological Psychology*,

Biology+, Black Studies*, Business Administration+^, Chemistry+, Classical

Studies (Latin, Greek, Hebrew), Computer Science+#, Dance (minor

only),Economics, Education (certification)+#, English, Environmental

Science/Studies*, Film Studies (minor only), Geology, Government,

History+#, International Studies (International Relations and separate

concentrations in African, East Asian, European, Latin American, Middle

Eastern and Russian Studies), Kinesiology, Law^, Linguistics*, Literary and

Cultural Studies*, Marine Science+#, Mathematics+, Medieval and Renaissance

Studies*, Military Science, Modern Languages (Arabic, Chinese, French,

German, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish), Music,

Philosophy, Physics+#, Psychology+#, Public Policy+, Religion, Sociology,

Theatre and Speech, Women's Studies*

*Interdisciplinary Studies Degree

+Master's Degree Program

#Doctoral Degree Program

^Professional Degree Program

Schools Arts and Sciences, Business Administration, Education, Law, Marine


Special Opportunities Freshman seminars focusing on specialized topics

with a limited class-size of 17 students. Undergraduate research

opportunities. Community service projects and organizations. Psy.D. degree

in Clinical Psychology in conjuction with Eastern Virginia Medical

Authority. Center for International Studies with Study Abroad programs in

Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, England, France, Germany, Italy,

Japan and Scotland. Summer session with graduate offerings on campus.

Special institutes and seminars. Departmental Honors programs. 17 computer

labs outfitted with the latest Pentium PCs. A high-speed fiber-optic

network connects all campus buildings, including residence hall rooms.

Foreign language houses. Military Science Program. Advisory programs in pre-

engineering, pre-law and pre-medicine.

Library The Earl Gregg Swem Library contains more than one million volumes

and computer access to many standard computerized data bases. Special

Collections include documents from many historical figures, including the

lifetime papers of U.S. Chief Justice Warren Burger.

Computers Seventeen computer labs around campus outfitted with the latest

Pentium PC computers. Campus buildings--including all residence hall rooms

- are tied to a high-speed fiber-optic network, featuring the World Wide

Web and cable television.

Major Buildings Sir Christopher Wren Building (1695), oldest academic

building in the U.S.; President's House (1732); the Brafferton (1723); Phi

Beta Kappa Memorial Hall; William and Mary Hall seating up to 10,000 for

convocations, sports events, cultural programs. Among the College's newest

buildings are the University Center, McGlothlin-Street Hall, the Reves

Center, Plumeri Park and the McCormack-Nagelsen Tennis Center. Residential

halls and houses for 4,450 students.


$366 million

Annual Budget

Total--$172 million for 2002-2003




A 17-member Board of Visitors appointed by the Governor of Virginia.


Chancellor: Dr. Henry A. Kissinger

(The former Secretary of State and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in

1973 is 22nd Chancellor of the College)

President: Timothy J. Sullivan '66 (25th President of the College)

Provost: Gillian T. Cell

Vice President for University Development: Dennis Cross

Vice President for Student Affairs: W. Samuel Sadler '64

Vice President for Public Affairs: Stewart H. Gamage '72

Vice President of Finance: Samuel E. Jones '75

Vice President for Administration: Anna Martin

Director of Athletics: Edward C. Driscoll, Jr.

Yale University.

Yale University was founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School in the home of

Abraham Pierson, its first rector, in Killingworth, Connecticut. In 1716

the school moved to New Haven and, with generous gift by Elihu Yale of nine

bales of goods, 417 books, and a portrait of King George the first, renamed

Yale College in 1718.

Yale embarked on a steady expansion, establishing the Medical Institution

(1810), Divinity School (1822), Law School (1843), Graduate School of Arts

and Sciences (1847), the School of Fine Arts (1869) and School of Music

(1894). In 1887 Yale College became Yale University. It continued to add to

its academic offerings with the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

(1900), School of Nursing (1923), School of Drama (1955), School of

Architecture (1972), and School of Management (1974).

Rutgers College.

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, with over 60,000 students on

campuses in Camden, Newark, and New Brunswick, is one of the major state

university systems in the nation. The university is made up of twenty-six

degree-granting divisions; twelve undergraduate colleges, eleven graduate

schools, and three schools offering both undergraduate and graduate

degrees. Five are located in Camden, seven in Newark, and fourteen in New


Rutgers has a unique history as a colonial college, a land-grant

institution, and a state university. Chartered in 1766 as Queen's College,

the eighth institution of higher learning to be founded in the colonies

before the revolution, the school opened its doors in New Brunswick in 1771

with one instructor, one sophomore, and a handful of freshmen. During this

early period the college developed as a classical liberal arts institution.

In 1825, the name of the college was changed to Rutgers to honor a former

trustee and revolutionary war veteran, Colonel Henry Rutgers.

Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864,

resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School with

departments of agriculture, engineering, and chemistry. Further expansion

in the sciences came with the founding of the New Jersey Agricultural

Experiment Station in 1880, the College of Engineering in 1914, and the

College of Agriculture (now Cook College) in 1921. The precursors to

several other Rutgers divisions were also founded during this period: the

College of Pharmacy in 1892, the New Jersey College for Women (now Douglass

College) in 1918, and the School of Education (now a graduate school) in


Brown University

Founded in 1764, Brown University was the third college in New

England and the seventh in America - and the only one that welcomed

students of all religious persuasions. A commitment to diversity and

intellectual freedom remains a hallmark of the University today.

Established as Rhode Island College in the town of Warren, Rhode

Island, the University moved to its present location on Providence's

College Hill in 1770. In 1804, the University was renamed to honor a $5,000

donation from Providence merchant Nicholas Brown.

Over the years the University grew steadily, adding graduate

courses in the 1880s, a women's college in 1889 (renamed Pembroke College

in 1928), a graduate school in 1927, and a medical education program in

1973 (now the Brown Medical School). The men's and women's undergraduate

colleges merged in 1971.

While facilities and programs expanded, Brown chose to keep its

enrollment relatively small, with an undergraduate student-faculty ratio of

about 9 to 1. The main campus covers nearly 140 acres, all of it within a

10-minute walk of its hub, the College Green. The University is situated on

a historic residential hill overlooking downtown Providence, a city of some

170,000 people.

The University library system contains more than 5 million items,

including bound volumes, periodicals, maps, sheet music, and manuscripts.

The number of items grows by more than 100,000 each year.

The John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, known as "the Rock," is

Brown's primary humanities and social-sciences resource center.

The Sciences Library houses the University's collection of science

and medical books and periodicals. Located on the 14th floor is the

University's media services operation.

The John Hay Library houses special collections, including most of

the University's rare books, manuscripts, and archives.

The John Carter Brown Library is an independently administered and

funded center for advanced research in history and the humanities. It

houses an internationally renowned collection of primary sources pertaining

to the Americas before 1825.

Other specialty libraries include the Orwig Music Library (the

general music collection), the Art Slide Library (slides of art and art-

related subjects, including architecture and archaeology), and the

Demography Library (a major resource for population research).

Teaching, research and public service are conducted through a

number of centers and institutes affiliated with the University. They

include the Annenberg Institute for School Reform, the Center for Alcohol

and Addiction Studies, the Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research,

the Population Studies and Training Center, and the Watson Institute for

International Studies.

Carrying on an intercollegiate athletic tradition more than 100 years

old, the Brown Bears compete against the seven other Ivy League schools and

against other colleges and universities at the NCAA Division I level. Brown

has one of the nation's broadest arrays of varsity teams -- 37 in all; 20

for women and 17 for men.

Brown has its share of historic firsts, including the nation's

first intercollegiate men's ice hockey game (defeating Harvard 6-0 on

January 19, 1898) and the nation's first women's varsity ice hockey team

(organized in 1964).

As a member of the Ivy League, Brown awards financial aid on the

basis of need; it does not grant athletic scholarships.

University of Pensilvania.


Full-time: 18,050

Part-time: 4,276

Total: 22,326

Full-time Undergraduate: 9,863

Full-time Graduate/professional: 8,187

(Fall 2001; most current figures)

Undergraduate Admissions:

Penn received record-high 19,153 applications for admission to the Class of

2005. Of those applicants, 4,132, or 21.6 percent, were offered admission,

making the class of 2005 the most selective in Penn's history and the

institution among the most selective universities in America. Ninety-two

percent of the students admitted for Fall 2001 came from the top 10 percent

of their high school graduating class and scored a combined 1,412 on the

SAT. 2,391 students matriculated into this year's freshman class.


Record-high 2,588 international students applied for admission to Penn's

undergraduate schools for Fall 2001, and 401 (15.5%) received admissions

offers. Ten percent of the first Ten percent of the first year classes are

international students. Of the international students accepted to the Class

of 2005, 11.1% were from Africa and the Middle East, 44.6% from Asia, 1%

from Australia and the Pacific, 14.3% from Canada and Mexico, 10.6% from

Central/South America and the Caribbean, and 18.6% from Europe. Penn had

3,485 international students enrolled in Fall 2001.

Study Abroad:

Penn offers 65 study-abroad programs in 36 countries. Penn ranks first

among the Ivy League schools in the number of students studying abroad,

according to the most recent data (Institute for International Education,

1999-2000). In 1999-2000, 1,196 Penn undergraduate students participated in

study- abroad programs.


About 42 percent of those accepted for admission to the Class of 2005 are

Black, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American. Women comprise 50 percent of

all students currently enrolled.

Undergraduate Schools:

Penn's four undergraduate schools, with their Fall 2001 student

populations, are:

The College at Penn (School of Arts and Sciences), 6,464

School of Engineering and Applied Science, 1,612

School of Nursing, 363

The Wharton School, 1,729

Graduate and Professional Schools:

Penn's 12 graduate and professional schools, with their Fall 2001 student

populations, are:

Annenberg School for Communication, 78

School of Arts and Sciences, 2,302

School of Dental Medicine, 530

Graduate School of Education, 1,059

School of Engineering and Applied Science, 884

Graduate School of Fine Arts, 562

Law School, 856

School of Medicine, 1,091

School of Nursing, 351

School of Social Work, 326

School of Veterinary Medicine, 451

The Wharton School, 2,055


Standing: 2,257

Associated: 2,062

Total: 4,319

The student-faculty ratio is 6.4:1 (Fall 2001).

Measures of distinction of the faculty include:

61 members of the Academy of Arts and Sciences;

44 members of the Institute of Medicine;

39 members of the National Academy of Sciences;

91 Guggenheim Fellowships (1980-2001);

11 members of the National Academy of Engineering;

Seven MacArthur Award recipients;

Six National Medal of Science recipients;

Four Nobel Prize recipients; and

Two Pulitzer Prize winners


Penn is the largest private employer in the city of Philadelphia and the

fourth-largest in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of Fall 2001, Penn

has a total regular work force of 12,290. The University of Pennsylvania

Health System, which includes the Hospital of the University of

Pennsylvania, employs an additional 12,673 people.


Total undergraduate majors currently being pursued: 94 (Academic Year



5.0 million books

3.6 million items on microfilm

39,439 periodical subscriptions

1,952 CD-ROM databases

4,734 e-journals

Athletics and Recreation:

A charter member of the Ivy League, Penn offers intercollegiate competition

for men in 20 sports, including basketball, baseball, heavyweight crew,

lightweight crew, cross country, fencing, football, golf, lacrosse, soccer,

sprint football, squash, swimming, tennis, indoor track, outdoor track and

wrestling. It offers intercollegiate competition for women in 14 sports,

including basketball, crew, cross country, field hockey, fencing, golf,

gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, softball, squash, swimming, tennis, indoor

track, outdoor track and volleyball. During the 2001-2002 academic year,

there were 14,678 team members participating in 20 intramural teams; 927

additional students were members of 30 club sports.

Campus Size:

. West Philadelphia campus: 269 acres, 151 buildings (excluding


. New Bolton Center: 600 acres, 77 buildings

. Morris Arboretum: 92 acres, 30 buildings

Living Alumni of Record:

Total: 233,303 (Fiscal Year 2001)

Undergraduate Admission and Fees:

$27,988 (Academic Year 2003)

Room and Board Fees:

$8,224 (Academic Year 2003)

Community Service:

Approximately 5,000 University students, faculty and staff participate in

more than 300 Penn volunteer and community service programs. The Middle

States Association of Colleges and Schools recognized the University's West

Philadelphia Improvement Corps (WEPIC), in Penn's Center for Community

Partnerships, for exemplary school-college partnerships in Pennsylvania.

Fundraising (Fiscal Year 2001):

Endowment $3.382 billion (as of June 30, 2001)

Voluntary support: $285 million

107,941 donors gave $138 million in contributions

$92 million in gifts from foundations and associations

$37 million in gifts from corporations

Sponsored Projects (Fiscal Year 2001):

$550 million in awards

4,169 awards

2,655 projects

1,219 principal investigators


$3.21 billion (Fiscal Year 2002)

Payroll (including benefits):

$1.324 billion (Fiscal Year 2002)

Washington and Lee University.

Washington and Lee is a small, private, liberal arts university nestled

between the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains in Lexington, VA. It is the

ninth oldest institution of higher learning in the nation.

In 1749, Scotch-Irish pioneers who had migrated deep into the Valley of

Virginia founded a small classical school called Augusta Academy, some 20

miles north of what is now Lexington. In 1776, the trustees, fired by

patriotism, changed the name of the school to Liberty Hall. Four years

later the school was moved to the vicinity of Lexington, where in 1782 it

was chartered as Liberty Hall Academy by the Virginia legislature and

empowered to grant degrees. A limestone building, erected in 1793 on the

crest of a ridge overlooking Lexington, burned in 1803, though its ruins

are preserved today as a symbol of the institution's honored past.

In 1796, George Washington saved the struggling Liberty Hall Academy when

he gave the school its first major endowment--$20,000 worth of James River

Canal stock. The trustees promptly changed the name of the school to

Washington Academy as an expression of their gratitude. In a letter to the

trustees, Washington responded, "To promote the Literature in this rising

Empire, and to encourage the Arts, have ever been amongst the warmest

wishes of my heart." The donations - one of the largest to any educational

institution at that time continue to contribute to the University's

operating budget today.

General Robert E. Lee reluctantly accepted the position of president of the

College in 1865. Because of his leadership of the Confederate army, Lee

worried he "might draw upon the College a feeling of hostility," but also

added that "I think it the duty of every citizen in the present condition

of the Country, to do all in his power to aid in the restoration of peace

and harmony." During his brief presidency, Lee established the School of

Law, encouraged development of the sciences, and instituted programs in

business instruction that led to the founding of the School of Commerce in

1906. He also inaugurated courses in journalism, which developed by 1925

into The School of Journalism--now the Department of Journalism and Mass

Communications. These courses in business and journalism were the first

offered in colleges in the United States. After Lee's death in 1870, the

trustees voted to change the name from Washington College to Washington and

Lee University.

Once an all-male institution, Washington and Lee first admitted women to

its law school in 1972. The first undergraduate women matriculated in 1985.

Since then, Washington and Lee has flourished. The University now boasts a

new science building, a performing arts center and an indoor tennis

facility, and it continues to climb the ranking charts of U.S. News and

World Report and other rating agencies. Washington and Lee is ranked 15th

among the top national liberal arts colleges by U.S. News.

Washington and Lee University observed its 250th Anniversary with a year-

long, national celebration during the 1998-99 academic year.

Columbia University.

Columbia University was founded in 1754 as Kings College by royal charter

of King George II of England. It is the oldest institution of higher

learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United


Controversy preceded the founding of the College, with various groups

competing to determine its location and religious affiliation. Advocates of

New York City met with success on the first point, while the Anglicans

prevailed on the latter. However, all constituencies agreed to commit

themselves to principles of religious liberty in establishing the policies

of the College.

In July 1754, Samuel Johnson held the first classes in a new schoolhouse

adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in

Manhattan. There were eight students in the class. At Kings College, the

future leaders of colonial society could receive an education designed to

enlarge the Mind, improve the Understanding, polish the whole Man, and

qualify them to support the brightest Characters in all the elevated

stations in life. One early manifestation of the institutions lofty goals

was the establishment in 1767 of the first American medical school to grant

the MD degree.

The American Revolution brought the growth of the College to a halt,

forcing a suspension of instruction in 1776 that lasted for eight years.

However, the institution continued to exert a significant influence on

American life through the people associated with it. Among the earliest

students and Trustees of Kings College were John Jay, the first Chief

Justice of the United States; Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of

the Treasury; Gouverneur Morris, the author of the final draft of the U.S.

Constitution; and Robert R. Livingston, a member of the five-man committee

that drafted the Declaration of Independence.

The College reopened in 1784 with a new nameColumbiathat embodied the

patriotic fervor, which had inspired the nations quest for independence.

The revitalized institution was recognizable as the descendant of its

colonial ancestor, thanks to its inclination toward Anglicanism and the

needs of an urban population, but there were important differences:

Columbia College reflected the legacy of the Revolution in the greater

economic, denominational, and geographic diversity of its new students and

leaders. Cloistered campus life gave way to the more common phenomenon of

day students, who lived at home or lodged in the city.

In 1849, the College moved from Park Place, near the present site of City

Hall, to 49th Street and Madison Avenue, where it remained for the next

fifty years. During the last half of the nineteenth century, Columbia

rapidly assumed the shape of a modern university. The Law School was

founded in 1858, and the countrys first mining school, a precursor of

todays School of Engineering and Applied Science, was established in 1864.

When Seth Low became Columbias president in 1890, he vigorously promoted

the university ideal for the College, placing the fragmented federation of

autonomous and competing schools under a central administration that

stressed cooperation and shared resources. Barnard College for women had

become affiliated with Columbia in 1889; the medical school came under the

aegis of the University in 1891, followed by Teachers of graduate faculties

in political science, philosophy, and pure science established Columbia as

one of the nations earliest centers for graduate education. In 1896, the

Trustees officially authorized the use of yet another new name, Columbia

University, and today the institution is officially known as Columbia

University in the City of New York.

Lows greatest accomplishment, however, was moving the University from 49th

Street to Morningside Heights and a more spacious campus designed as an

urban academic village by McKim, Mead & White, the renowned turn-of-the-

century architectural firm. Architect Charles Follen McKim provided

Columbia with stately buildings patterned after those of the Italian

Renaissance. The University continued to prosper after its move uptown.

During the presidency of Nicholas Murray Butler (19021945), Columbia

emerged as a preeminent national center for educational innovation and

scholarly achievement. John Erskine taught the first Great Books Honors

Seminar at Columbia College in 1919, making the study of original

masterworks the foundation of undergraduate education. Columbia became, in

the words of College alumnus Herman Wouk, a place of doubled magic, where

the best things of the moment were outside the rectangle of Columbia; the

best things of all human history and thought were inside the rectangle.

The study of the sciences flourished along with the liberal arts, and in

1928, ColumbiaPresbyterian Medical Center, the first such center to

combine teaching, research, and patient care, was officially opened as a

joint project between the medical school and The Presbyterian Hospital.

By the late 1930s, a Columbia student could study with the likes of Jacques

Barzun, Paul Lazarsfeld, Mark Van Doren, Lionel Trilling, and I.I. Rabi, to

name just a few of the great minds of the Morningside campus. The

Universitys graduates during this time were equally accomplishedfor

example, two alumni of Columbias Law School, Charles Evans Hughes and

Harlan Fiske Stone (who also held the position of Law School dean), served

successively as Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

Research into the atom by faculty members I.I. Rabi, Enrico Fermi, and

Polykarp Kusch placed Columbias Physics Department in the international

spotlight in the 1940s, and the founding of the School of International

Affairs (now the School of International and Public Affairs) in 1946 marked

the beginning of intensive growth in international relations as a major

scholarly focus of the University. The Oral History movement in the United

States was launched at Columbia in 1948.

Columbia celebrated its Bicentennial in 1954 during a period of steady

expansion. This growth mandated a major campus-building program in the

1960s, and, by the end of the decade, five of the Universitys schools were

housed in new buildings.

The revival of spirit and energy on Columbias campus in recent years has

been even more sweeping. The 1980s saw the completion of over $145 million

worth of new construction, including two residence halls, a computer

science center, the Rare Book and Manuscript Library, a chemistry building,

the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery, Lawrence A. Wien Stadium, and

much more. The quality of student life on campus has been a primary

concern, and the opening of Morris A. Schapiro Hall in 1988 enabled

Columbia College to achieve its long-held goal of offering four years of

housing to all undergraduate students. A second gift from this farsighted

benefactor led to the opening in 1992 of the Morris A. Schapiro Center for

Engineering and Physical Science Research, which is helping to secure

Columbias leadership in telecommunications and high-tech research.

On the Health Sciences campus, a generous commitment from the Sherman

Fairchild Foundation has lent impetus to the development of the Audubon

Biomedical Science and Technology Park by providing funds for construction

of the Center for Disease Prevention. In addition to securing Columbias

place at the forefront of medical research, this project will help spur the

growth of the biotechnology industry in New York City, forge vital new

links between Columbia and the local community, and help to revitalize the

area around the medical center.

Thanks to concerted efforts to place the University on the strongest

possible foundations, Columbia is approaching the twenty-first century with

a firm sense of the importance of what has been accomplished in the past

and confidence in what it can achieve in the years to come.

In 1897, the University moved from 49th Street and Madison Avenue, where it

had stood for fifty years, to its present location on Morningside Heights

at 116th Street and Broadway. Seth Low, the President of the University at

the time of the move, sought to create an academic village in a more

spacious setting. Charles Follen McKim of the architectural firm of McKim,

Mead & White modeled the new campus after the Athenian agora. The Columbia

campus comprises the largest single collection of McKim, Mead & White

buildings in existence.

The architectural centerpiece of the campus is Low Memorial Library, named

in honor of Seth Lows father. Built in the Roman classical style, it

appears in the New York City Register of Historic Places. The building

today houses the Universitys central administration offices and the

Visitors Center.

A broad flight of steps descends from Low Library to an expansive plaza, a

popular place for students to gather, and from there to College Walk, a

promenade that bisects the central campus. Beyond College Walk is the South

Campus, where Butler Library, the Universitys main library, stands. South

Campus is also the site of many of Columbia Colleges facilities, including

student residences, the Ferris Booth Hall activities center, and the

Colleges administrative offices and classroom buildings, along with the

building housing the Journalism School.

To the north of Low Library stands Pupin Hall, which in 1966 was designated

a national historic landmark in recognition of the atomic research

undertaken there by Columbias scientists beginning in 1925. To the east is

St. Pauls Chapel, which is listed with the New York City Register of

Historic Places.

Many newer buildings surround the original campus. Among the most

impressive are the Sherman Fairchild Center for the Life Sciences, the

Computer Science building, Morris A. Schapiro Hall, and the Morris A.

Schapiro Center for Engineering and Physical Science Research.

Two miles to the north of Morningside Heights is the twenty-acre campus of

the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, overlooking the Hudson River in

Manhattans Washington Heights. Among the most prominent buildings on the

site are the twenty-story Julius and Armand Hammer Health Sciences Center,

the William Black Medical Research building, and the seventeen-story tower

of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. In 1989, The Presbyterian

Hospital opened the Milstein Hospital Building, a 745-bed facility that

incorporates the very latest advances in medical technology and patient

care. To the west is the New York State Psychiatric Institute; east of

Broadway will be the Audubon Biomedical Science and Technology Park, which

will include the new Center for Disease Prevention. The Park is being

developed as a major urban research complex to house activities on the

cutting edge of scientific and medical research.

Other interesting information.

It is also very interesting, that in the USA many universities are

connected with each other. They belong to different unions. For example,

Dartmouth College, Brown University, Columbia University, Princeton

University and Yale University are the parts of Ivy League. It is a union

of the most respectable and famous universities in the United States of


Ivy League consists of eight colleges and universities. All of them are

rather old and popular. But they are not cheap, because students must pay

much money for their education.

The most expensive University is Dartmouth. The cheapest one is Yale.

All the universities have their own emblems, which are always different and

have definite meanings.



Klimenko Ekaterina.


form V.

Education and Culture

In the United States, education, cultural activities, and the

communications media exert a tremendous influence on the lives of

individuals. Through these means, knowledge and cultural values are

generated, transmitted, and preserved from one generation to the next.

In most of the United States, illiteracy has been virtually eliminated.

However, census estimates suggest that 2.4 percent of the population over

age 25 is functionally illiterate, that is, they are unable to read and

write well enough to meet the demands of everyday life. More of the

population has received more education than ever before. Among Americans

aged 25 and older in 1993, about four-fifths had completed high school, as

compared with only about one-fourth as recently as 1940. In 1993 nearly 22

percent of the population had com pleted four or more years of college.

This same trend toward increased accessibility and usage applies to

America's cultural institutions, which have continued to thrive despite a

troubled economy.


In the United States, education is offered at all levels from

prekindergarten to graduate school by both public and private institutions.

Elementary and secondary education involves 12 years of schooling, the

successful completion of which leads to a high school diploma. Although

public education can be defined in various ways, one key concept is the

accountability of school officials to the voters. In theory, responsibility

for operating the public education system in the United States is local. In

fact, much of the local control has been superseded, and state legislation

controls financing methods, academic standards, and policy and curriculum

guidelines. Because public education is separately developed within each

state, variations exist from one state to another. Parallel paths among

states have developed, however, in part because public education is also a

matter of national interest.

Public elementary and secondary education is supported financially by three

levels of governmentlocal, state, and federal. Local school districts

often levy property taxes, which are the major source of financing for the

public school systems. One of the problems that arises because of the heavy

reliance on local property tax is a disparity in the quality of education

received by students. Rich communities can afford to pay more per student

than poorer communities; consequently, the disparity in wealth affects the

quality of education received. Some states have taken measures to level

this imbalance by distributing property tax collections to school districts

based on the number of students enrolled.

When public education was established in the American colonies in the mid-

17th century, it was viewed by many as an instrument that would break down

the barriers of social class and prejudice. Public schools were intended

for all creeds, classes, and religions. In addition to the development of

individuals, public schools were to promote social harmony by equalizing

the conditions of the population.

Most students attended private schools, however, until well into the 19th

century. Then, in the decades before the American Civil War (1861-1865), a

transition took place from private to public school education. This

transition was to provide children of all classes with a free education.

The idea of free public education did, however, encounter opposition. The

nonw hite population, which consisted primarily of blacks, was either

totally denied an education or allowed to attend only racially segregated


School Segregation

Before the Civil War, public school segregation was common both in the

South and in the North. In every southern state except Kentucky and

Maryland, laws existed that forbade the teaching of reading and writing to


In 1867, after the end of the Civil War, schools for blacks began to be

established in various parts of the South. For nearly a century, until

1954, most education facilities in the southern states remained racially

segregated by state laws. Not only were schools segregated, but, in schools

for blacks, the physical conditions and facilities were poor,

transportation to such schools was meager or nonexistent, and expenditures

per black pupil fell below those per white pupil.

In the northern states during this same period, most black chi ldren also

attended separate schools. Sometimes this was the result of state laws;

more often it was the result of policy decisions, either officially

acknowledged or clandestine. Examples of the latter are gerrymandered

school districts and pupil transfer systems. The result, in the South and

the North, was a dual system of education for blacks and whites.

In 1954 the Supreme Court of the United States declared racial segregation

in schools illegal, in its landmark Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

decision. Since then progress has been made toward desegregation; however,

widespread de facto segregation still exists today in both suburban and

urban areas. In the late 1980s more than 60 percent of black and Hispanic

American students attended schools where minority group enrollment

constituted over 50 percent of the total. In some large cities, either

because of residential patterns or because of an intent to segregate

schools, entire school districts are still segregated. Some districts have

attempted the busing of pupils to help achieve integration, but this has

proved generally unpopular and unworkable. Thus, the right to a

desegregated education remains more theoretical than real for many


Elementary and Secondary Enrollments

In 1993 some 59,680 public elementary and 19,995 public secondary schools

were in operation in the United States, in addition to 4826 special-purpose

or combined schools. Enrollment in public schools in 1993 totaled about 31

million elementary pupils and about 11.7 million secondary students. In

addition, private elementary and secondary schools together enrolled about

4.9 million students in 1991. The largest system of private education in

the United States is that of the Roman Catholic church, with some 2.6

million students in 1991. In public schools, the average expenditure per

pupil in the United States in 1993 was about $5574, ranging from a low of

about $3218 in Utah to a high of about $9712 in New Jersey.

Higher Education

The first American colleges were small and attended by an aristocratic

student body. The earliest institutions were established in the United

States between the mid-17th and mid-18th centuries: Harvard University

(1636), the College of William and Mary (1693), Yale University (1701), the

University of Pennsylvania (1740), Princeton University (1746), Columbia

University (1754), Brown University (1764), Rutgers University (1771), and

Dartmouth College (1769). These private institutions initially prepared

students for careers in theology, law, medicine, and teachinga curriculum

too narrow for a country experiencing a rapid expansion of its territory,

industry, and industrial population.

An important development occurred in 1862, when President Abraham Lincoln

signed the Morrill Act (see Land-Grant Colleges), which donated public

lands to the several states and territories to provide colleges with the

resources necessary to teach such branches of learning as agriculture and

the mechanical arts. The Morrill Act was designed to promote the liberal

and practical education of the new industrial population. Based on the act,

each state was granted 12,141 hectares (30,000 acres) of federal land for

each member it had in Congress. In addition to creating colleges, the

Morrill Act extended education to groups that would benefit from higher

education regardless of financial background and greatly accelerated the

admission of women to institutions of higher learning. Some of the larger

institutions that were established or expanded as a result of the Morrill

Act include the University of Arizona (1885), the University of California

at Berkeley (1868), the University of Florida (1853), the University of

Illinois (1867), Purdue University (1865), the University of Maryland

(1807), Michigan State University (1855), Ohio State University (1870),

Pennsylvania State University (1855), and the University of Wisconsin


Higher education, like elementary and secondary education, has historically

been racially segregated in the United States. Before 1954 most blacks

gained access to higher education only by attending colleges and

universities established for blacks, nearly all of which were located in

the southern states. With the gradual dissolution of most traditional

racial barriers, more and more blacks enrolled in institutions where whites

made up the majority of the student body. By 1990 only about 17 percent of

all black students were enrolled in the 105 historically black colleges and



A unique feature of higher education in the United States is the device

known as accreditation, which includes voluntary self-evaluation by a

school and appraisal by a group of its peers. This process operates through

nationally recognized accrediting agencies and associations and certain

state bodies. These agencies or associations have established educational

criteria to evaluate institutions in terms of their own objectives and to

ascertain whether programs of educational quality are being maintained.

They provide institutions with continued stimulus for improvement, to

ensure that accredited status may serve as an authentic index of

educational quality.

Costs of Higher Education

The cost of higher education varies by type of institution. Tuition is

highest at private four-year institutions, and lowest at public two-year

institutions. The private four-year colleges nearly quadrupled their

average tuition rates between 1975 and 1990. For private four-year

colleges, tuition and fees for the 1992-1993 academic year averaged about

$13,043, compared with about $2827 at public four-year colleges. The cost

of attending an institution of higher education includes not only tuition

and fees, however, but also books and supplies, transportation, personal

expenses and, sometimes, room and board. Although tuition and fees

generally are substantially lower at public institutions than at private

ones, the other student costs are about the same. The average cost for

tuition, fees, and room and board for the 1992-1993 academic year at

private four-year colleges was about $18,892. At public four-year colleges

the average combined cost was about $6449.

Enrollment Trends

In 1992 about 62.1 million people were enrolled in elementary and secondary

schools and institutions of higher education, about 1.1 million more than

the number enrolled in 1975.

Nursery school enrollment increased sharply between 1970 and 1992, from

about 1.1 million to about 2.9 million children. This rise in nursery

school enrollment may have occurred because of the increasingly recognized

value of preprimary education as well as the growth in employment outside

the home of women with young children. College and university enrollment

also increased substantially, from some 8.6 million students in 1970 to

14.5 million in 1992. The increase in enrollment in institutions of higher

education was primarily due to the growth in attendance by women. Of the

total school enrollment in 1992, whites constituted about 83 percent,

blacks about 10 percent, and Hispanic Americans (who may be of any race)

about 7 percent.


. The beginning.1-2

. Princeton University.2

. The College of William and Mary..2-7

. Yale University..7

. Rutgers College7-8

. Brown University8-10

. University of Pensilvania10-14

. Washington and Lee University.14-16

. Columbia University.16-22

. Other interesting information22

. Ivy League 23-24

. Education and Culture25

. Education.25-31

. Literature.32

. N. V. Bagramova.

T. I. Vorontsova.

The book for reading in area studies. The United States of America

(country and people)

Publishers Soyuz, St. Petersburg, 2000 year.

. O. L. Soboleva.

Students Encyclopedia. Russian language, Literature, Russian history,

English language.

Moscow, AST-PRESS, 2001 year.

. Internet.

Official web sites of the colleges and universities.